trò chơi điện tử là gì

From Wikipedia, the không tính tiền encyclopedia

Bạn đang xem: trò chơi điện tử là gì

An LCD screen Yahtzee game

An electronic game is a game that uses electronics vĩ đại create an interactive system with which a player can play. Video games are the most common size today, and for this reason the two terms are often used interchangeably. There are other common forms of electronic game including handheld electronic games, standalone systems (e.g. pinball, slot machines, or electro-mechanical arcade games), and exclusively non-visual products (e.g. audio games).

Teletype games[edit]

The earliest size of computer game vĩ đại achieve any degree of mainstream use was the text-based Teletype game. Teletype games lack video clip display screens and instead present the game vĩ đại the player by printing a series of characters on paper which the player reads as it emerges from the platen. Practically this means that each action taken will require a line of paper and thus a hard-copy record of the game remains after it has been played. This naturally tends vĩ đại reduce the size of the gaming universe or alternatively vĩ đại require a great amount of paper. As computer screens became standard during the rise of the third generation computer, text-based command line-driven language parsing Teletype games transitioned into visual interactive fiction allowing for greater depth of gameplay and reduced paper requirements. This transition was accompanied by a simultaneous shift from the mainframe environment vĩ đại the personal computer. Several of these subsequently were ported vĩ đại systems with video clip displays, eliminating the need for a teletype printer.

Examples of text-based Teletype games include:

  • The Oregon Trail (1971)
  • Trek73 (1973)
  • Dungeon (1975)
  • Super Star Trek (1975)
  • Colossal Cave Adventure (1976)
  • Zork (1977)

Electronic handhelds[edit]

The earliest size of dedicated console, handheld electronic games are characterized by their size and portability. Used vĩ đại play interactive games, handheld electronic games are often miniaturized versions of video clip games. The controls, display and speakers are all part of a single unit, and rather than vãn a general-purpose screen made up of a grid of small pixels, they usually have custom displays designed vĩ đại play one game. This simplicity means they can be made as small as a digital watch, which they sometimes are. The visual output of these games can range from a few small light bulbs or LED lights vĩ đại calculator-like alphanumerical screens; later these were mostly displaced by liquid crystal and Vacuum fluorescent display screens with detailed images and in the case of VFD games, color. Handhelds were at their most popular from the late 1970s into the early 1990s. They are both the predecessors vĩ đại and inexpensive alternatives vĩ đại the handheld game console.

Examples of handheld electronic games include:

  • Mattel Auto Race (1976)
  • Simon (1978)
  • Merlin (1978)
  • Game & Watch (1980)
  • MB Omni (1980)
  • Bandai LCD Solarpower (1982)
  • Entex Adventure Vision (1982)
  • Lights Out (1995)

Pinball machines and similar devices[edit]

Since the introduction of electromechanics vĩ đại the pinball machine in 1933's Contact, pinball has become increasingly dependent on electronics as a means vĩ đại keep score on the backglass and vĩ đại provide quick impulses on the playfield (as with bumpers and flippers) for exciting gameplay. Unlike games with electronic visual displays, pinball has retained a physical display that is viewed on a table through glass. Similar forms of game such as pachinko have also become increasingly dependent on electronics in modern times.

Examples of pinball games include:

  • The Addams Family (1991)
  • Indiana Jones: The Pinball Adventure (1993)
  • Star Trek: The Next Generation (1993)
  • List of pinball machines

Redemption games and merchandisers[edit]

Redemption games such as Skee-Ball have been around since the days of the carnival game - well earlier than vãn the development of the electronic game, however with modern advances many of these games have been re-worked vĩ đại employ electronic scoring and other game mechanics. The use of electronic scoring mechanisms has allowed carnival or arcade attendants vĩ đại take a more passive role, simply exchanging prizes for electronically dispensed coupons and occasionally emptying out the coin boxes or banknote acceptors of the more popular games.

Merchandisers such as the Claw Crane are more recent electronic games in which the player must accomplish a seemingly simple task (e.g. remotely controlling a mechanical arm) with sufficient ability vĩ đại earn a reward.

Examples of redemption games include:

  • Whac-A-Mole (1976)
  • Skee-Ball - modern electric versions

Examples of merchandisers include:

  • Claw crane (1980)

Slot machines[edit]

The slot machine is a casino gambling machine with three or more reels which spin when a button is pushed. Though slot machines were originally operated mechanically by a lever on the side of the machine (the one arm) instead of an electronic button on the front panel as used on today's models, many modern machines still have a "legacy lever" in addition vĩ đại the button on the front. Slot machines include a currency detector that validates the coin or money inserted vĩ đại play. The machine pays off based on patterns of symbols visible on the front of the machine when it stops. Modern computer technology has resulted in many variations on the slot machine concept.

Audio games[edit]

An audio game is a game played on an electronic device such as—but not limited to—a personal computer. It is similar vĩ đại a video clip game save that the only feedback device is audible rather than vãn visual. Audio games originally started out as 'blind accessible'-games, but recent interest in audio games has come from sound artists, game accessibility researchers, mobile game developers, and mainstream video clip gamers. Most audio games lập cập on a computer platform, although there are a few audio games for handhelds and video clip game consoles. Audio games feature the same variety of genres as video clip games, such as adventure games, racing games, etc.

Examples of audio games include:

  • Real Sound: Kaze no Regret (1997)
  • Chillingham (2004)
  • BBBeat (2005)[citation needed]

Tabletop games[edit]

A tabletop audio game is an audio game that is designed vĩ đại be played on a table rather than vãn a handheld game.

Examples of tabletop audio games include:

Xem thêm: Cách làm bánh nướng hình thú bằng nồi chiên không dầu đơn giản cho trẻ

  • Brain Shift (1998)[1]
  • Who Wants vĩ đại be a Millionaire? (2000)

Video games[edit]

A video clip game is a game that involves interaction with a user interface vĩ đại generate visual feedback on a video clip device. The word video in video game traditionally referred vĩ đại a raster display device.[2] However, with the popular use of the term "video game", it now implies any type of display device.

Term "digital game" has been offered by some in academia as an alternative term.[3]

Arcade games[edit]

Electronic video clip arcade games make extensive use of solid state electronics and integrated circuits. In the past coin-operated arcade video clip games generally used custom per-game hardware often with multiple CPUs, highly specialized sound and graphics chips and/or boards, and the latest in computer graphics display technology. Recent arcade game hardware is often based on modified video clip game console hardware or high over pc components. Arcade games may feature specialized ambiance or control accessories, including fully enclosed dynamic cabinets with force feedback controls, dedicated lightguns, rear-projection displays, reproductions of xế hộp or plane cockpits and even motorcycle or horse-shaped controllers, or even highly dedicated controllers such as nhảy mats and fishing rods. These accessories are usually what mix modern arcade games apart from PC or console games, and they provide an experience that some gamers consider more immersing and realistic.

Examples of arcade games include:

  • Galaxy Game (1971)
  • Pong (1972)
  • Space Invaders (1978)
  • Galaxian (1979)
  • Pac-Man (1980)
  • Battlezone (1980)
  • Donkey Kong (1981)
  • Street Fighter II (1991)
  • Mortal Kombat (1992)
  • Fatal Fury (1992)
  • Killer Instinct (1994)
  • King of Fighters (1994–2005)
  • Time Crisis (1995)
  • Dance Dance Revolution (1998)
  • DrumMania (1999)
  • House of the Dead (1998)

Computer games[edit]

A personal computer video clip game (also known as a computer game or simply PC game) is a video clip game played on a personal computer. This is opposed vĩ đại video clip game consoles or arcade machines, which are not considered personal computers. Computer games became a size of video clip games, and since the earliest days of the medium, visual displays such as the cathode ray tube have been used vĩ đại relay game information.

Console games[edit]

A console game is a size of interactive multimedia used for entertainment. The game consists of manipulable images (and usually sounds) generated by a video clip game console, and displayed on a television or similar audio-video system. The game itself is usually controlled and manipulated using a handheld device connected vĩ đại the console called a controller. The controller generally contains a number of buttons and directional controls (such as analog joysticks) each of which has been assigned a purpose for interacting with and controlling the images on the screen. The display, speakers, console, and controls of a console can also be incorporated into one small object known as a handheld game console.

Console games are most frequently differentiated between by their compatibility with consoles belonging in the following categories:

  • Traditional console, also called "home console" - A multi-game system that uses the screen of a television vĩ đại produce graphics.
  • Handheld game console - A multi-game system the screen and controls of which are compacted into a single handheld device.
  • Dedicated console - A (typically) single game system of either the Plug and play variety or the LCD game.
  • Educational console - A multi-game console supporting primarily educational games. These consoles are often simplified for use by children.

Within these categories the systems are differentiated between by their manufacturer and generation (corresponding vĩ đại the year of their release). Console games are also often differentiated by game genre.

Hybrid or combined games[edit]

Game hybridization refers vĩ đại the integration of an interactive, electronic component into a game. A "hybrid" or "combined game" is any tabletop game where an electronic device and/or application is an element crucial vĩ đại the gameplay.[4] These games are a catalyst for creating new game mechanics. Important consequences of this technology are: the possible substitution of the gamemaster or person who leads a game for an application or device, which can be more fair, with less room for bias, cheating or favouritism, and can be intelligently randomised; the possibility of using artificial intelligence and machine learning in games; greater randomisation of events; possibility of conducting fast and advanced mathematical calculations, making some complex games easier or available vĩ đại a wider group of consumers; and enhanced player immersion with the aid of various stimuli lượt thích sound or animation.[5]

One may categorize hybrid games as follows:

  • Purpose-built devices: Where the game uses a device that has certain functions (like an electronic dice or spinner) vĩ đại play out the game. An example would be "Monopoly: Electronic Banking" (2007) by Hasbro,[6] where all players have an electronic thẻ which carries virtual Monopoly currency, and use a machine vĩ đại increase and deduct their earnings.
  • Beacon technology games are mobile, digital games that employ BLE (Bluetooth Low Energy) Beacons vĩ đại track and control players movements and actions. An example: Artifact Technologies created a mobile, digital board game, called BattleKasters [7] where players physically walk around vĩ đại cast spells or unlock cards.
  • Augmented Reality: board games that interact with a mobile device and immerse the player in the virtual environment through animation, sound and/or vibrations. Example: Roar! by Trefl,[8] which utilises sound as part of the gameplay.


Electronics have been adapted for use in a wide range of applications. Board games such as Dark Tower, for instance, rely heavily upon electronics. Non-traditional electronic games such as Rubik's Revolution or electronic toys which blur the boundaries between games and toys such as the Electronic Magic 8 Ball Date Ball[9] or the Electronic Ouija Board[10] are often considered electronic games as well.

Electro-mechanical games[edit]

These were types of arcade games similar vĩ đại arcade video clip games but relying on electro-mechanical components vĩ đại produce sounds or images rather than vãn a cathode ray tube screen.[11] These were popular during the 1960s and 1970s, but video clip games eventually overtook them in popularity during the golden age of video clip arcade games that began in 1978.

A popular early example was Sega's Periscope in 1966.[12] It was an early submarine simulator and light gun shooter,[13] which used lights and plastic waves vĩ đại simulate sinking ships from a submarine.[14] Sega later produced gun games which resemble first-person shooter video clip games, but were in fact electro-mechanical games that used rear image projection in a manner similar vĩ đại the ancient zoetrope vĩ đại produce moving animations on a screen.[11] An early example of this was the light gun game Duck Hunt,[15] which Sega released in 1969;[16] it featured animated moving targets on a screen, printed out the player's score on a ticket, and had sound effects that were volume controllable.[15]

Non-human games[edit]

With the development of technology geared toward electronic entertainment of animals (typically pets), video clip games for pets have also been created. Since the majority of animals lack opposable thumbs, the fine motor skills required for use in most gaming is unavailable vĩ đại these animals. Furthermore, the visual perception of many animals is influenced by a different visible spectrum than vãn humans.[17] Techniques that de-emphasize manual control and visual components have been developed vĩ đại circumvent these problems beginning with the development of television for pets.[18][19] From this point, developers have branched out into the realm of electronic games with such products as Mice Arena (for mice), Chicken Petman, and Cyberpounce (for cats).[20][21][22]

Xem thêm: Cách làm bánh chuối Thượng Hải mềm ngon dễ làm tại nhà


  1. ^ "Brain Shift". BoardGameGeek. Retrieved 2019-09-28.
  2. ^ "TELEVISION GAMING APPARATUS AND METHOD". United States Patents. Archived from the original on 2013-09-17. Retrieved 2008-06-25.
  3. ^ Crawford, Garry (2012). Video Gamers. Routledge. p. 3. ISBN 9781135178871. Retrieved 2021-10-20.
  4. ^ Regan Mandryk, Diego S Maranan, False prophets: exploring hybrid board/video games. CONFERENCE PAPER · JANUARY 2002 doi:10.1145/506443.506523 ·
  5. ^ Danesh, A., Inkpen, K.M., Lau, F.W., Shu, K.S., Booth, K.S. Geney: Designing a collaborative activity for the Palm handheld computer. In Proceedings of CHI, Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. Seattle, USA, April 2001
  6. ^ "Monopoly: Electronic Banking (2007)". BoardGameGeek. Archived from the original on 21 September 2017. Retrieved 21 September 2017.
  7. ^ "Beacons bring board game into the real world: Artifact's BattleKasters makes PAX Prime debut". GeekWire. 28 August năm ngoái. Archived from the original on 21 September 2017. Retrieved 21 September 2017.
  8. ^ "Roar!". Archived from the original on 23 August 2017. Retrieved 21 September 2017.
  9. ^ Hanks, Anna. Over the 8 Ball - This Essay for Entertainment Purposes Only ... Archived 2010-02-01 at the Wayback Machine. The Austin Chronicle. 29 October 1999.
  10. ^ Meacham, Tara. About Ouija Boards. eHow. Retrieved 8 December 2008.
  11. ^ a b D.S. Cohen, Killer Shark: The Undersea Horror Arcade trò chơi from Jaws,, archived from the original on 2011-07-17, retrieved 2011-05-03
  12. ^ Steven L. Kent (2000), The First Quarter: A 25-Year History of Video Games, p. 83, BWD Press, ISBN 0-9704755-0-0
  13. ^ Brian Ashcraft (2008) Arcade Mania! The Turbo Charged World of Japan's trò chơi Centers, p. 133, Kodansha International
  14. ^ Steve L. Kent (2001), The ultimate history of video clip games: from Pong vĩ đại Pokémon and beyond: the story behind the craze that touched our lives and changed the world, p. 102, Prima, ISBN 0-7615-3643-4
  15. ^ a b "1969 Sega Duck Hunt (Arcade Flyer)". Archived from the original on 2011-04-29. Retrieved 2011-05-03.
  16. ^ Duck Hunt (1969) at the Killer List of Videogames
  17. ^ Newby, Jonica. Dogs' Eyes Archived 2008-12-25 at the Wayback Machine. ABC Online. 25 September 2003.
  18. ^ Entertainment Property for Dogs Raises Awareness and Money for Animal Charities Archived 2009-01-06 at the Wayback Machine. quảng cáo Newswire. 28 November 2004.
  19. ^ Pet Videos Archived 2008-10-22 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 8 December 2008.
  20. ^ Ashcraft, Brian. Video Games For Animals Archived 2008-10-05 at the Wayback Machine. Kotaku. 18 April 2006.
  21. ^ Cats become the new e-consumers.(Product Information) Archived 2009-10-11 at the Wayback Machine. Computer Weekly. 7 June 2001.
  22. ^ Chatterton, Sally. The Daily Website: The Independent (London). 12 June 2001.